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Geography of Germany

Germany's northern border is the North and Baltic Seas. It has a southern boundary with the Alps. Its highest summit is the Zugspitze in Bavaria, which stands at an altitude of 2,962 metres. The lowest point on land is located in Schleswig-Holstein in Neuendorf-Sachsenbande and is 3.54 metres below sea level. Germany, with a total area of 357,340 sq. km., is the EU's fourth-largest member state, behind France, Spain, and Sweden. About a third of its land area is forested—more than 2% of inland waterways, including lakes, rivers, and ponds. The longest river in Europe is the Rhine. It divides Germany and France in the southwest, while the cities of Bonn, Cologne, and Düsseldorf may be found along its banks in the north. The Elbe is the second longest river in Germany and runs into the North Sea, connecting the cities of Dresden, Magdeburg, and Hamburg.

The weather in Germany is generally pleasant. The average temperature is 16.9 degrees Celsius in July and -0.5 degrees in January. In recent years, German winters have been hot, while summers have been unusually scorching. The average temperature in Germany in 2018 was 10.5 degrees, making it the hottest year since 1881. There was a tie for second place between 2019 and 2014. On July 25, 2019, Lingen, Lower Saxony, reached the highest temperature recorded: 42.6 degrees Celsius.

Germany is a nation in Central Europe split into East Germany and West Germany as part of the peace treaty that ended World War II. This partition lasted for 45 years, from 1945 to 1990. However, the political differences in Germany are a product of human actions and have nothing to do with the country's physical landscape. The focus of physical geography is on the Earth's physical features. Let's examine the landforms and waterways of this stunning nation.

Germany is on the European mainland, namely in Central Europe. It is the sixth-largest European nation, with an area of 357,022 square kilometres. It is surrounded by the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the east, giving it 2,389 kilometres of coastline. There is a mountain in the Bavarian Alps called Zugspitze, which rises to an impressive 2,963 metres above sea level, making Germany the country with the most significant average height in Europe. The climate of Germany is excellent, with four seasons and snowy winters. Germany is divided into four separate areas.

What Is The Topography And Geography Like In Germany?

There are 16 individual states (Länder; singular: Land) that make up the Federal Republic of Germany, three of which are city-states (Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg). Nearly four million people call Berlin home. Surrounded by Brandenburg State, Brandenburg Land's seat is in Potsdam, next to Berlin on the southwest. The state of Bavaria takes up the lion's share of Germany. Germany is one of the most urbanised and densely inhabited countries in Europe, with a population of over 82 million and a total geographical area of approximately 137,800 square miles (a little smaller than the State of Montana).

Landscapes in Germany's five regions are quite different from one another. The Bavarian Alps with the Zugspitze (9,717 ft) near Garmisch are Germany's highest mountain, followed by the flat northern German lowlands, the hills and low mountains of the Mittelgebirge, the west and south German plateaus and mountains (including the Black Forest, the Schwarzwald), the south German Alpine foothills and lake country, and finally the Bavarian Alps.

The Rhine, Weser, Elbe, Main, Oder, and Danube are among the country's most significant waterways. All three initial ones go north and eventually empty into the North Sea. The Main flows into the Rhine as a tributary. Donaueschingen, a picturesque and ancient town in southwest Germany, is where the Danube River begins its 1,725-mile journey eastward. It eventually runs into the Black Sea in the Romanian city of Sighisoara. Germany's biggest lake, Lake Constance (Bodensee), serves as a natural boundary between the countries of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria.

Throughout The Years: From The Weimar Republic To The Present Day In German History

The Weimar Republic was established as a democratic state in 1919, but the United States Department of State reports that Germany's economy and society soon deteriorated. Moreover, Germany's government had lost much of its stability by 1929 as the globe descended into depression and the country's dozens of political groups hindered efforts to form a united administration. The National Socialist Party (Nazi Party) under Adolf Hitler's leadership gained strength in 1932, and by 1933, the Weimar Republic had collapsed. After President Paul von Hindenburg died in 1934, Hitler, who had been appointed Reich Chancellor the year before, took over as head of Germany.

Once the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, almost all democratic institutions were dismantled. Jews in Germany were also persecuted, as were any political opponents. The Nazis' extermination programme of the country's Jewish people started shortly after. This ultimately became known as the Holocaust, and about six million Jewish individuals in Germany and other Nazi-occupied territories were slaughtered. The Holocaust was just one consequence of the Nazi government's policies and expansionist actions that ultimately sparked World War II. This ultimately led to the downfall of Germany's government, economy, and a significant number of its cities.

After Germany capitulated on May 8, 1945, the Allied powers (the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and France) established a period known as Four Power Control. Initially, Germany was supposed to be governed as a unitary entity, but Soviet policies quickly dominated eastern Germany. The Soviet Union blockaded Berlin in 1948, and the country of Germany was split in half into East and West in 1949. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) adhered to Western values, whereas East Germany (under Soviet authority) adopted Soviet communist policies. Because of this, political and social upheaval swept over Germany for the better part of the middle of the century. In the 1950s, millions of East Germans migrated to the west. The Berlin Wall was built in 1961 to symbolically and physically separate the two sides.

By the 1980s, demand for political change and German unity was rising until, in 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, and in 1990 the Four Power Control ended. This led to the first all-German elections in Germany on December 2, 1990, after the country had been divided since 1933. Germany has made great strides in regaining its political, economic, and social stability since the 1990s. The country is now well-recognised for its high quality of life and robust economy.

German Federal Government

There is now a federal republic in Germany. The country's chief of state is its president, while its head of government is called the chancellor. The Federal Council and the Federal Diet make up Germany's bicameral legislature. The three courts that makeup Germany's legal system are the Federal Constitutional Court, the Federal Court of Justice, and the Federal Administrative Court. Sixteen separate states in the United States handle municipal affairs.

Land Use And Economic Performance In Germany

The German economy is robust and cutting-edge, reaching number five globally. The CIA's World Factbook also lists it as a leading producer of metals, minerals, and chemicals. Manufacturing equipment, automobiles, electronics, ships, and textiles are some of Germany's other major economic drivers. Germany's most important agricultural exports are potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, cabbage, fruit, cattle, pigs, and dairy products.

Climate And Geography In Germany

You may find Germany between Central Europe and the Seas of the Baltic and North. It has nine neighbouring nations, including France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Belgium. The northern lowlands starkly contrast with the southern Bavarian Alps and the central uplands of Germany. Zugspitze, at 9,721 feet (2,963 m), is Germany's highest peak, while Neuendorf bei Wilster, at -12 feet (3.7 m), is the country's lowest (-3.5 m).

The weather in Germany falls within the category of "marine temperate." The climate is temperate all year round, with chilly, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. Berlin, the capital of Germany, has an average low of 28.6 degrees (-1.9 C) in January and an average high of 74.7 degrees (23.70 C) in July.

German Federal Government

Germany, or the Federal Republic of Germany, takes its name from the Latin term Germania. There are two parliamentary chambers: the Federal Council and the Federal Diet. In this nation, 16 different types of municipal governments exist. Federal courts in Germany include the Federal Constitutional Court and the State Constitutional Law Court, both created by the German Constitution. Germany has a chancellor who serves as head of government and a president who serves as head of state.

Information About Germany's Geography

Here are a few simple but informative facts about Germany that can help you study geography and history.

Total Area: 357,022 sq. km (137,847 sq mi)

Austro-Bavarian (Czech spoken orally by a native minority; Sorbian spoken orally and written by a native minority; Danish, Low German favoured or Vistula delta Silesian; and Romani commonly used) and German are the official and most generally spoken languages, respectively.

Total population: 83,240,000 (2020)

Protestants make up about 34% of the population, Catholics 34%, Muslims 3.7%, and others 28.3%.

Climate is temperate and marine, with chilly, overcast, damp winters and summers with the occasional mild mountain (foehn) breeze.

Germany Berlin, The Capital

Berlin, 3.645 billion people, call this place home (2019)

German Flag Colors: According to Article 22 of the German Basic Law, Germany's flag has the colours black, red, and gold.

Uniquely German Questions About the World's Geography Answered

The Zugspitze is the tallest peak in Germany, standing at an impressive 9,718 feet.

We estimate that around 80 million people are living in Germany.

Bonn, not Frankfurt, became the capital of West Germany in 1965. In 1990 the capital was again transferred back to Berlin."

Twelve German states were officially independent in 1946.

With a water area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi), the Port of Hamburg is the biggest inland port in the world.

To paraphrase, "Frankfurt is the centre of Germany's banking industry."

Bismarck, then chancellor of the North German Confederation, is credited with leading the nation to unification in 1871.

Between Cologne and Bonn, the first freeway was constructed in 1931.

If you are looking for a country where women are well represented in top leadership roles, look no further than Germany.

Eighty per cent of the nation is flat, about. Somewhere over a quarter of it is put to agricultural use.

The Rhine River crosses Germany.

Although German and Austrian are the two countries' official languages, many other languages are spoken there, including Turkish.

The North Sea to the east and the Baltic Sea to the north provide Germany with 7,770 kilometres (4,825 miles) of ocean coastline.

Munich's Deutsches Museum is one of Europe's finest scientific centres. There are 300,000 displays spread throughout 14 expo halls.

The history and development of Germany, a European nation, may be better comprehended with knowledge of its geography. The planet's topography shapes the course of human history. It's shocking and a lot of fun. Moreover, such information may be used to assist nations in need, such as those hosting refugees from countries experiencing conflict.

Major urban areas and several rivers and lakes may be found in the biggest nation in the European Union, which occupies little more than a quarter of Central Europe.

Information about Germans

This European nation produced several notable poets in the early literary age, including the brilliant Albert Einstein. In addition, the Germans have a penchant for the performing arts.

Many well-known German composers include Hans Zimmer, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Johannes Brahms. Football, tennis, and swimming are Germany's three most popular sports.

Bayern Munich and Borussia Dortmund are two of the most popular teams in the Bundesliga, the German national top soccer league, among fans who do not speak German.

Many native German speakers root for Sebastian Vettel (F1), Bastian Schweinsteiger (soccer), Anna Schaffelhuber (skiing), and Felix Neureuther (skiing). The majority of its athletes have more name recognition in Germany.

Central German Uplands

The Central German Uplands dominate the heart of Germany. Hilly, although seldom more than 1,100 metres above sea level. The hills are separated by vast valleys that typically have rivers or lakes. Two of Germany's most well known woods are south of the Central German Uplands. Both the Bohemian Forest and the Bavarian Forest fall under this category.


The wheat and rye loaves that are so popular in Germany. Sausage made with sauerkraut, and bold is the most famous example of German food that travels abroad. Germans love potatoes, but pasta dishes are popular too, particularly with the younger population.

Several restaurants now provide meat-based alternatives, and vegetarian options may be available at most establishments. Southern Germans are familiar with Schweinebraten (roasted pork knuckles) and Schweinsbraten (roasted pig's knuckles), whereas Northern Germans prefer Rinderbraten.

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